Układ powłokowy czyli skóra i jej wytwory

budowa_skory

UKŁAD POWŁOKOWY CZYLI SKÓRA I JEJ WYTWORY (WŁOSY, PAZNOKCIE, GRUCZOŁY POTOWE), TWORZĄ POWŁOKĘ OCHRONNĄ CIAŁA

BUDOWA SKÓRY CZŁOWIEKA

Skóra jest ,, żywym ubraniem” które nosimy codziennie, nie zastanawiając się nad jej budową i funkcją jaką pełni. Nie możemy jej porównywać do materiału, jest ona z pewnością czymś więcej niż tylko ubranie które daje nam ciepło czy gustowny wygląd. Można porównać ją do mostu który łączy brzegi, w przypadku skóry jest to połączenie świata zewnętrznego z wnętrzem naszych ciał. Warstwa ta oddziela organizm od środowiska zewnętrznego. Skóra stanowi zewnętrzną barierę, która ochrania nasz organizm zarówno przed czynnikami fizycznymi jak i biologicznymi. To największy organ, który oddycha i nieustannie odnawia się. Powierzchnia skóry u człowieka wynosi od 1,5 do 2 m2. Wśród organizmów roślinnych jak i zwierzęcych skóra jest najbardziej skomplikowaną powłoką ciała.

ZBUDOWANA JEST Z TRZECH WARSTW:


NASKÓREK (łac. epidermis) – najbardziej zewnętrzna warstwa skóry. Jest to najcieńszy nabłonek okrywający powłokę ciała organizmu, jego grubość wynosi 0,5 mm. Największa grubość naskórka jest na skórze dłoni i podeszwach stóp, bardzo cienki naskórek znajduje się na powiekach. Komórki naskórka układają się warstwowo, wyróżnia się tutaj (od góry) warstwę: rogową, ziarnistą, kolczystą i podstawną. Warstwa podstawna i kolczysta to warstwy żywe, stąd nazywa się je wspólnie warstwą rozrodczą. Jej zadaniem jest wytworzenie i regeneracja zewnętrznej osłony rogowej skóry. Polega to na tym że w warstwie podstawnej stale zachodzą intensywne podziały komórkowe. Powstające komórki stale wypychają starsze ku górze. W warstwie rogowej stopniowo ulęgają one rogowaceniu, obumierają i złuszczają się. W naskórku znajdują się melanocyty wytwarzające melaninę która nadaje skórze barwę i chroni ją przed działaniem promieniowania słonecznego. Znajdują się tutaj także komórki Langerhansa, które biorą udział w reakcjach odpornościowych a także komórki Merkla które rejestrują bodźce tj. temperaturę, ucisk. Wytworami naskórka są włosy, paznokcie, gruczoły łojowe, potowe, mlekowe.

SKÓRA WŁAŚCIWA (łac. cutis vera) – jest kolejną warstwa skóry, zbudowaną z tkanki łącznej wiotkiej co zapewnia jej elastyczność, jędrność, a także wytrzymałość mechaniczną. Dokładnie za te cechy odpowiedzialne są włókna : kolagenowe, sprężyste i retikulinowe. Warstwa skóry właściwej jest bogata w gruczoły, naczynia krwionośne i limfatyczne, zakończenia nerwowe i mieszki włosowe. Naczynia limfatyczne i krwionośne zaopatrują komórki skóry w ciała odpornościowe, składniki pokarmowe i tlen. Zakończenia nerwów czuciowych odbierają bodźce ze środowiska zewnętrznego.

WARSTWA PODSKÓRNA (łac. hypodermis) – jest to najgłębsza warstwa skóry. Możemy o niej powiedzieć tłuszczowa wyściółka, której grubość zależy od wieku, płci, miejsca występowania, sposobu odżywiania i trybu życia. Stanowi warstwę termoizolacyjną. Chroni głębiej położone narządy przed urazami mechanicznymi, amortyzuje wstrząsy oraz zapewnia ruchomość skóry w stosunku do niżej położonych tkanek.

SKÓRA JEST ZEWNĘTRZNĄ POWŁOKĄ NASZEGO CIAŁA, DLATEGO SPEŁNIA WIELE WAŻNYCH FUNKCJI:

 

  • ochronna – rogowaciejący naskórek, keratyna chroni przed czynnikami chorobotwórczymi, szkodliwymi substancjami czy też uszkodzeniami mechanicznymi. Kolagen i elastyna zapewniają elastyczną ochronę przed mechanicznymi uszkodzeniami, tkanka tłuszczowa ochrania organy wewnętrzne przed obrażeniami oraz zapewnia idealną izolację przed zimnem,
  • ochrona przed wysychaniem – łój i pot wytwarzane przez gruczoły skóry tworzą na powierzchni ciała cienką warstwę emulsji olejowo – wodnej, która chroni przed szkodliwym działaniem czynników chemicznych. Nadaje również skórze pewien stan natłuszczenia przez co przeciwdziała jej wysychaniu i pękaniu oraz w niewielkim stopniu chroni przed uszkodzeniami mechanicznymi. Kwaśne oddziaływanie łoju i potu jest czynnikiem przeciwbakteryjnym i przeciwgrzybicznym,
  • ochrona organizmu – przed szkodliwym promieniowaniem ultrafioletowym poprzez wytwarzanie barwnika zwanego melaniną. Melanina nadaje skórze barwę i decyduje o możliwości opalania. Melanina jest syntetyzowane w melanocytach. Rozmieszczenie i ilość melanocytów są zależne od rasy człowieka i czynników genetycznych,
  • termoregulacyjna – skóra jest głównym narządem regulacji temperatury organizmu. Utrzymanie stałej temperatury możliwe jest dzięki rozszerzeniu i obkurczaniu naczyń krwionośnych oraz działalności gruczołów potowych. Pod wpływem niskich temperatur naczynia krwionośne obkurczają się, zwiększa się aktywność mięśni i pojawia się tzw. gęsia skórka. Aktywność gruczołów potowych zmniejsza się. W niskich temperaturach krążenie jest utrudnione, co zapobiega ochładzaniu organizmu. Pod wpływem wysokiej temperatury dochodzi do rozszerzenia naczyń krwionośnych, zmniejszenia aktywności mięśni (przyleganie włosów), i zwiększenia aktywności gruczołów potowych. Przy rozszerzonych naczyniach włosowatych napływa więcej krwi i szybciej następuje wychłodzenie organizmu,
  • gospodarka witaminowa – ogromnie ważną zaletą skóry jest zdolność do syntezy witaminy D3, która ma bardzo ważny wpływa na gospodarkę wapniowo-fosforanową organizmu,
  • wydzielnicza – tutaj bardzo ważną rolę spełniają wytwory naskórka: gruczoły łojowe, potowe, mlekowe i zapachowe,
  • odbieranie bodźców – na całej powierzchni skóry znajdują się receptory, które odpowiadają za poszczególne zmysły: ciałka dotykowe (ciałka Meissnera) – równomiernie rozmieszczone na powierzchni skóry, najwięcej na opuszkach palców, są wrażliwe na dotyk i ucisk. Ciałka blaszkowate (ciałka Vatera-Paciniego nacisku i wibracji) – reagują, gdy czynnik pobudzający działa odkształcająco na pewien obszar ciała. Nocyceptory – receptory wyspecjalizowane w odbieraniu silnych bodźców zagrażających organizmowi, jak nagłe i znaczne zmiany temperatury czy obecność substancji drażniących. Ciałka buławkowate – ich zadaniem jest podobnie jak w przypadku ciałek Vatera-Paciniego odbieranie bodźców nacisku i dotyku, najwięcej znajduje się na skórze pleców wzdłuż kręgosłupa. Receptory dotyku są rozmieszczone najgęściej w obrębie opuszek palców, skórze warg, na koniuszku języka. Receptory te współdziałają w odbieraniu bodźców z innymi receptorami czuciowymi co daje złożone wrażenia.

WYTWORAMI MASKÓRKA SĄ WŁOSY, CZĘŚCI WYDZIELNICZE GRUCZOŁÓW ŁOJOWYCH I POTOWYCH ORAZ PAZNOKCIE:

 

  • włosy – chronią organizm człowieka przed przegrzaniem i utratą ciepła, są elastyczne i nitkowate. Włos zbudowany jest z łodygi (zbudowanej z martwych komórek wypełnionych głównie wodą i keratyną), oraz z korzenia. Dolna część to – cebulka, w jej zagłębieniu znajduje się brodawka włosa której komórki nieustannie się dzielą, odpowiadając za wzrost włosa. Korzeń tkwi w torebce włosa, do której uchodzi gruczoł łojowy, a pod nim przymocowany jest mięsień przywłosowy, barwa włosów zależy od ilości wytwarzanej w nich melaniny,
  • gruczoły potowe – wytwarzają pot, biorą udział w gospodarce wodnej organizmu, procesach termoregulacyjnych, chronią skórę przed wysychaniem. Mają postać cewek, które dodatkowo są zwinięte w kłębki. W obrębie kłębuszka leżą komórki nabłonkowo – mięśniowe. Kurcząc się powodują wydostawanie się potu do przewodu potowego, który następnie odprowadza ją do otworów potowych mieszczących się w naskórku. Skład potu: woda 99%, chlorkiem sodu 0,5%, mocznik, kwas moczowy, amoniak. Pot jako ciecz przezroczysta, bezbarwna i lekko kwaśna hamuje rozwój mikroorganizmów,
  • gruczoły łojowe – wytwarzają łój (mieszanina związków tłuszczowych, głównie kwasów tłuszczowych, cholesterolu i wosku), który natłuszcza skórę i włosy, nadaje w ten sposób połysk i elastyczność, chroni przed przesuszeniem i złamaniem, stanowi wodoodporną powłokę skóry. Stanowi barierę antybakteryjną. Gruczoły są pęcherzykowate ich przewód wyprowadza do torebki włosa łój,
  • gruczoły mlekowe – największe gruczoły skórne człowieka, chodzi o piersi, których funkcja polega na wydzielaniu mleka. Kobieta około 3 dni po porodzie karmi noworodka tzw. siarą (wydzielinę bogatą w białko i leukocyty), a następnie mlekiem. Gruczoły mlekowe są zmodyfikowanymi gruczołami potowymi. U mężczyzn są silnie zmodyfikowane i występują w postaci szczątkowej,
  • gruczoły zapachowe – większe od gruczołów potowych. Szczególnie aktywne w okresie dojrzewania płciowego. Występują pod pachami oraz w skórze pokrywającej narządy płciowe. Odpowiadają za wydzielanie tzw. zapachu osobniczego. Początkowo bezwonna wydzielina nabiera intensywnego zapachu w wyniku rozkładu bakteryjnego,
  • paznokcie – chronią końcowe odcinki palców. Paznokcie to rogowe osłony zbudowane głównie z keratyny nadającej im twardość.

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