Budowa narządu wzroku

Budowa narządu wzroku

Anatomiczną postacią zmysłu wzroku jest narząd wzroku, który składa się z gałki ocznej, aparatu ochronnego i aparatu ruchowego oka oraz połączeń nerwowych siatkówki oka ze strukturami mózgu. Narząd wzroku odpowiada za odbieranie informacji z otoczenia w postaci fal świetlnych o długości 350-740 nm. Para oczu umieszczona jest w czaszce, po obu stronach głowy w zagłębieniu zwanym oczodołem. Gałkę oczna przed urazami mechanicznymi zabezpiecza gruba podściółka tłuszczowa wyścielająca oczodół. Powieki zamykają się przy podrażnieniu powierzchni oka, chroniąc w ten sposób gałkę oczną, która poruszana jest przez liczne mięśnie. W tylnej części gałki ocznej znajduje się nerw wzrokowy, łączący ją z mózgiem. Gałka oczna ma kształt zbliżony do kuli, o przekroju ok. 24 mm. Wypełniona jest w większości bezpostaciową substancją zwaną ciałkiem szklistym, znajdującą się pod ciśnieniem, dzięki czemu oko zachowuje swój kształt.

Gałkę oczną pokrywają trzy błony: włóknista, naczyniowa, siatkówka, z których każda pełni odmienną funkcję.

Od zewnątrz gałkę oczną otacza błona włóknista. W jej skład wchodzi twardówka oraz rogówka:

A) twardówka: nieprzeźroczysta i biaława, jest najbardziej zewnętrzną częścią oka, a dokładnie tylną częścią błony włóknistej. Przez twardówkę przechodzi nerw wzrokowy i naczynia krwionośne. W przedniej części oka przechodzi w rogówkę.

B) rogówka: wypukła zewnętrzna część błony włóknistej, w jej przedniej części. Chroni oko przed urazami, przepuszcza i załamuje światło.

Błona naczyniowa oka:

C) tęczówka: nieprzeźroczysta tarczka stanowiąca przednia część błony naczyniowej. W centrum zawiera otwór zwany źrenicą (D). Barwne mięśnie tej błony regulują wielkość przekroju źrenicy. Zabarwienie tęczówki zależy od ilości brązowego barwnika (melaniny), skupionego głównie w jej tylnej części. Gdy jest go mało, tęczówka przyjmuje kolor niebieski. Przestrzeń między rogówką a tęczówką wypełniona jest przezroczystym płynem, który nosi nazwę cieczy wodnistej. Spełnia on funkcje zwilżającą i obronną przed zarazkami.

E) naczyniówka: tylna największa część błony naczyniowej gałki ocznej. Błona ta leży pod twardówką, zawiera nerwy, komórki barwnikowe oraz liczne naczynia krwionośne, które odżywiają pozostałe warstwy oka.

ciało rzęskowe: część oka otaczająca tęczówkę, łączy ją z naczyniówką. Zawiera mięsień rzęskowy, którego skurcze regulują kształt soczewki,

Błona wewnętrzna gałki ocznej:

F) siatkówka: trzecia błona bezpośrednio otaczająca gałkę oczną. Tu zlokalizowane są głównie dwa rodzaje komórek wzrokowych, zwierające receptory światła: pręciki i czopki.Tutaj odbierany jest obraz. Na siatkówce znajduje się plamka żółta, która jest odpowiedzialna za widzenie centralne, ostrość obrazów oraz rozpoznawanie kolorów. Poniżej znajduje się plamka ślepa, miejsce połączenia nerwów łączących komórki światłoczułe z nerwem wzrokowym.

Zawartość gałki ocznej:

G) komora przednia oka: przestrzeń między tylną powierzchnią rogówki a soczewką, wypełniona przeźroczystą wodnistą cieczą, która zachowuje krzywiznę rogówki. Komora tylna gałki ocznej ma z kolei kształt wąskiej szczeliny ograniczonej przez tylną powierzchnię tęczówki, przednią powierzchnię soczewki i ciało rzęskowe. Obie komory komunikują się ze sobą za pośrednictwem źrenicy i wypełnione są cieczą wodnistą (płynem śródocznym).

H) soczewka: kształt dwuwypukłego przeźroczystego dysku, lekko spłaszczonego z przodu, który skupia promienie świetlne.

I) ciała szkliste: wypełnia przeźroczysty płyn o konsystencji żelu, który w 99% składa się z wody. Wywołuje on ciśnienie w gałce ocznej (tzw. ciśnienie śródoczne), nadaje jej kulisty kształt, amortyzuje wstrząsy.

W skład aparatu ochronnego gałki ocznej wchodzą brwi, rzęsy, powieki i aparat łzowy. Funkcja ich polega na ochronie przed uszkodzeniami mechanicznymi, wnikaniem drobnoustrojów, drobnych cząsteczek ciał stałych. Zapewnia on również stale wilgotne środowisko oraz oczyszcza gałkę oczną.

  • brwi: gęsto zgrupowane na wałach oczodołowych krótkie włoski; chronią oczy przed spływającym z czoła potem,
  • rzęsy: włosy znajdujące się na wolnych brzegach powiek, zadanie ich polega na zatrzymywaniu ciał obcych,
  • powieki (górna i dolna): są to fałdy skórne, których ruch zamyka oko, chroniąc przed uszkodzeniem lub światłem o zbyt dużym natężeniu,
  • spojówka: wyściela wewnętrzną część powiek i przednią część gałki ocznej,
  • aparat łzowy: zadanie jego polega na wydzielaniu łez, które w swoim składzie zawierają w ok. 98% wodę, pozostała część to substancje organiczne, sole mineralne i lizozym (substancja o właściwościach bakteriobójczych); łzy oczyszczają i nawilżają powierzchnię gałki ocznej.

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